Diana Baumrind 4 parenting styles


Diana Baumrind is an American developmental psychologist best known for her research and writing on parenting style(s). She has been described as “the foremost researcher on the effects of parenting during the last quarter-century” and one of America’s most respected and influential psychologists (Hess, 2002).

Baumrind first published her work on parenting styles in 1966; she has continued researching ever since – more than half a century – publishing significant new material as recently as 2011. Here is a brief overview of 4 parenting styles, which were identified by Diana Baumrind. Her four basic parenting styles are now

Authoritative parenting style

Evan Kishiyama standing posing for the camera

1) Demandingness:

Good control without abuse; demanding high standards of mature behavior that is consistent with the parent’s values

2) Parental responsiveness:

Enthusiastic warmth towards the child combined with a reasonable level of acceptance of his / her individuality; setting limits while encouraging independence; parents are affectionate, responsive to needs

3) Quality-Connectedness:

Bonding and attachment between parent and child; parental empathy

4) Psychological autonomy:

Encourages self-direction in the developmental tasks (schoolwork, social activities, etc.); an allowance for an appropriate level of exploration of ideas and values outside the family.

Permissive parenting style

A group of people looking at a phone

1) Demandingness:

Very low demandingness without real control over children’s behavior; emphasis on avoiding power struggles with kids by giving them what they want when they demand it

2) Responsiveness :

Warmth is expressed through the caretaker’s positive feelings toward the child but not necessarily through active interest or emotional responsiveness; parents are affectionate and nurturing

3) Quality- connectedness:

Bonding and attachment is based on the parents’ desire to provide for the child’s basic needs

4) Psychological autonomy:

Encourages self-direction in the developmental tasks (schoolwork, social activities, etc.); allowance for an appropriate level of exploration of ideas and values outside the family.

Authoritarian parenting style

1) Demandingness:

High demandingness with clear standards; controlling through setting up rules & consequences; need to follow instructions exactly so there is no confusion over what they want their children to do or not do

2) Responsiveness :

Warmth expressed through a consistent reward/punishment system; is sporadic but definitely there; parents are not affectionate

3) Quality-connectedness: Bonding and attachment based on the need to perform according to the parent’s expectations; their values and standards

4) Psychological autonomy:

Encourages self-direction in the developmental tasks (schoolwork, social activities, etc.); but does not encourage exploration of ideas or values outside of the parent’s family system.

Neglectful parenting style

1) Demandingness:

Very low demandingness; does not set limits or allow for exploration of the environment, only responds to child’s basic needs

2) Responsiveness :

Warmth is expressed through caretaker’s positive feelings toward the child but not necessarily through active interest or emotional responsiveness ; parents are affectionate and nurturing

3) Quality-connectedness:

Bonding and attachment based on the parents’ desire to provide for the child’s basic needs.

4) Psychological autonomy:

Encourages self-direction in the developmental tasks (schoolwork, social activities, etc.); allowance for an appropriate level of exploration of ideas and values outside the family. Neglectful parenting style manifests as a lack of appropriate supervision and care for the child, and is associated with a host of negative child outcomes.

Conclusion

Parents who fall into this parenting style lack empathy toward their children; they aren’t particularly affectionate or responsive to their kids’ needs, and they don’t involve themselves in their children’s lives at school or otherwise. These parents tend to be less invested in their children’s education , often expecting little from them academically . They also offer little support for their children’s personal interests and time outside of school .

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